Principles of development of children
Principles of development of children-• The qualitative and Quantitative change in a person over time is called that person’s development. There are many dimensions of development like- physical development, social development, cognitive development, language development and mental development etc. This qualitative and quantitative change in a child over time is called child development.
• Knowledge of the principles of child development is essential to make the teaching learning process effective Because on the basis of knowledge of these principles, the teacher adopts a particular learning process, understanding the changes and their effect on students as well as its relation to learning over time.
• While employing curriculum related activities of children of a certain age, it is necessary for the teacher to know what kind of physical and mental capacity is common among the children of that age. What kind of social activities can they be engaged in and how much control can they have over their emotions? For this, the teacher must have knowledge of the level of physical mental, social and emotional maturity of normal children of that age, So that he can control their actions and give them the required direction.
Principles development of children
Some of the major and well-known theories of child development are given below: –
1. Principle of sequential development
This theory states that even though the pace of development is not the same and sufficient individual differences are found, there is some uniformity in the sequence of development. In this sequence, all the members of the same caste have some similar characteristics. For example, the growth of all the children of mankind starts towards the head down to toes at cephalocaudal sequence.
The sequence of development starts with the spinal cord sequence and then the outward development.
2. Principle of Orderly Development
Development proceeds from general to specific responses. The child first learns the general activities and later the specific actions. For example, before grabbing something with his hands, the child tries to hit or stretch his hands from here to there. In language development also, the child learns the general words before the special words. First he addresses all the people as ‘Papa’, only then he learns to address his father as ‘Papa’ only.
3. Principle of rapid development during early years
Growth is more rapid in the early years of life, and growth is more rapid in infancy. Physical, intellectual, emotional and social development is very rapid in the early years of life. Growth and development occurs at a faster rate in infancy than in childhood or adolescence.
4. Principle of continuous development
According to this theory, development is an unstoppable process. This process starts from the mother’s womb and continues till death. The whole development of all aspects of our personality – physical, mental, social, etc., starts its life from a newborn child due to the merits of this continuity.
5. Principle of constancy Individual Differences
According to this theory, the growth and development of children is in accordance with their individuality. They keep moving forward in different areas of growth and development at their natural pace and for this reason substantial variations are seen in them. No one child is the same as any other child in terms of growth and development. Due to this principle of development, a child is very meritorious, a child is normal and a child is backward or slow.
6. Principle of different rates of development
Growth occurs at different rates for different parts of the body. Physical and mental qualities develop and attain maturity at different rates. Physical development is rapid in some areas but slow in some areas.
7. Principle of Interrelated development
All the elements of development like physical, mental, social, emotional etc. are related to each other. Development in any one of these dimensions has the potential to completely affect the development in all other dimensions. For example, children who have above average growth are also found to be progressing significantly in terms of physical and social development. On the other hand, the deficiencies found in one area prove to be a hindrance in the progress being made in another area. This is the reason that in terms of physical development, backward children are left equally behind in emotional, social and intellectual development.
8. Principle of Predictability
A child can be predicted about the direction and nature of his progress, keeping in mind his pace of growth and development. Similarly, with the knowledge of the mental abilities of the child at this time, his future mental development can be predicted.
9. Principle of cumulative and recapitulatory development
Development is cumulative and it keeps on repeating. Cumulative means ‘to add up’. The behavior of a person is based on past experiences. The characteristics of one state can be established in other states. For example, applying the knowledge learned.
10. Principle of interaction of maturation and learning
The interaction between maturity and learning results in growth and development. Maturity and learning are functional as a set. Learning refers to changes in behavior due to training or experience.
11. Principle of interaction of heredity and environment
Evolution is caused by both heredity and environment. The individual is a product of both heredity and environment. Both heredity and environment play a very important role in the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development of the child.
12. Principal of differential development
There is principle of differential development between boys and girls. Girls have more maturity comparatively boys. Girls begin to mature in the early stages of their age. Boys mature late as compared to girls.
13. Principle of unique development
There is a difference in the timing of development of each individual. For example, some children start talking at the age of 2 years while others start talking at the age of 3.
14. Principle of Integration
The process of development follows the principle of integration. According to this, the child first Learns to use special reactions and efforts in an assembled form, moving from the general to the special. For example, a child first learns to move the whole hand, then the fingers, then the hands and fingers together.
15. Principle of struggle
While developing towards maturity, the child has opposing impulses in his mind. In an effort to attain maturity, the child struggles against these. There is a sense of saying that a child has fluctuating emotions, sometimes more anger and sometimes more love.
16. Principle of anticipation
In the process of development, children use the capacity of self-evaluation. After attaining maturity, they predict from their behavior and habits what they will become in future.
17. Principle of indigenous motivation
When a child develops the ability to act, think and feel, he is motivated to use them. so that he may progress further. This is called natural motivation.
18. The principle of development is spiral and not linear
The growth of the child is circular instead of vertical. In one phase, it does not grow rapidly at the same pace, but appears to be at rest over the years, slowing down the pace of development so as to make the achieved growth and development permanent. Only by doing all this can he try to move forward in the years to come.
Internal Factors Influencing Child Development
The process of development of the child is affected due to internal and external reasons. Hereditary causes are physical factors, intelligence, emotional factors, social nature, etc. Internal factors affecting child development.
1. Heredity Factors
The genetic properties of a child have an important role in determining the appearance, shape, physical formation, height, etc. of a child. The genetic properties of the child also affect his growth and development. If the parents of the child are white, their child will be white, but if the parents are black, then their children will be black. Similarly, other qualities of the parents also go away genetically in the child. Due to this, a child can be very talented and beautiful and any other child can be physically and mentally weak.
2. Physical Factors.
It is natural for a normal and healthy child to develop more than the children who are born thin-skinned, weak, sick and suffering from any kind of physical wobble. Physical deficiencies have adverse effects not only on the growth and development of health as well. Unbalanced body, low altitude, physical disharmony etc. are due to abnormal behavior of the driver.
Wisdom is defined as learning ability, adjustability, decision making ability, etc. Just as the speed of learning of a child is high, his mental development will also take place at a rapid pace. How the child adjusts himself in his family, society and school depends on his intelligence.
4. Emotional Factors
The type of emotions that will develop in a child has the ability to fully influence his social, mental, moral, physical and language development. If the child is extremely angry or afraid or if he has more feelings of jealousy and disharmony, then it is natural for his kingdom to have an adverse effect on the process of development. Emotionally unbalanced children are unable to pay attention in the study or any other serious tasks, consequently their mental development is influenced.
External factors affecting child development
External Factors Effecting of Child Development Along with the above internal factors, the following external factors also play an important role in influencing the process of child development.
1. Mother’s health and environment during pregnancy
During pregnancy, the mother is advised to maintain good mental and physical health because it not only affects the development of the baby inside the womb but also strengthens the foundation for further development. If the mother’s health is not good, then how can the good health of her child be expected? And if the health of the child is not good, then it is only natural to have an adverse effect on its development.
2. Events of Life
Life events have an impact on the life of a child. If the child is treated well, then the pace of his development will be correct otherwise his development will be adversely affected.
3. Physical Environment
In which environment is the child born, in which environment is he living with? All these have an impact on its development. The development of the child is also adversely affected due to environmental deficiencies, pollution, lack of physical facilities, etc.
4. Socio-Economic Stage
The social and economic status of the child also has an impact on his development. Children from poor families do not have much development opportunities. Poor children do not get the opportunity to study in good schools, participate in cultural programs, etc., due to which their development is not balanced. The rich children of the city get better social and cultural environment than the poor children of the villages, due to which their mental and social development is naturally greater.
Revision Question Answers
Most important question answers of CTET 2021 exam preparation.
1. Question :- Which development is most helpful in mental and cognitive development in young children: –
Answer: Physical development.
2. Question:- The process of meaningful learning starts from which stage of development: –
Answer: In infancy stage
3. Question:- Why all children have independent play, informal formal play, participation in yoga and sports activities is necessary: -
Answer: For physical, mental and social development.
4. Question:- If you want to select a few students from your class and prepare a report on the development occurring at the age of 6 months, then what will you do for this: –
Answer: Every month, they will examine changes in their interests, habits, attitudes, temperament, personality behavior, etc.
5. Question:- Under what circumstances is the tendency for close friendship found?
Answer: In adolescence
6. Question: – In which stage of human development, the speed of learning of children is highest.
Answer: In infancy
7. Question:- The most important feature in a good teacher at primary level is: –
Answer: Patience and perseverance.
8. Question:- Human development depends on-
Answer: On its growth and maturity from the environment.
9. Question:- When the adolescent develops the ability to take decisions at a personal level for an object, problem or situation, then this development is called: –
Answer: Cognitive Development
10. Question:- Strong feelings like ‘who am I’, ‘what am I’, ‘I am anything’, etc. are indicative of which stage of development of the child?
11. Question:- As a result of which the child is able to adjust properly in his constantly changing environment?
Answer: Cognitive Development
12. Question:- What is learning according to ‘Skinner’?
Answer: “Learning includes both acquisition and retention”.
Most important MCQs
(Answers given below)
1. Human intelligence and understanding of development makes a teacher qualified. [CTET 2013]
(1) Practice your teaching impartially
(2) maintaining control over the emotions of the learners at the time of teaching
(3) clarity about the teaching of various learners
(4) To tell the learners how they can improve their life?
2. Systematic presentation of concepts Which of the following principles of development Can be associated with?[CTET 2012]
(1) Students develop at different rates
(2) development is relatively gradual.
(3) growth results in growth
(4) Development leads to heterogeneity leading to autonomy
3. Which of the following is the principle of development? [CTET 2012]
(1) Not all development processes are interconnected.
(2) Not everyone has the same growth rate
(3) Growth is always linear.
(4) It is not a continuous process
4. It helps the teacher to understand the principles of development of the child. [CTET 2011]
(1) Recognizing the economic background of the learner
(2) to justify why learners should teach
(3) to effectively address different learning styles of learners
(4) Recognizing the social level of the learner
5. “Development is a never ending process.” – This idea is related to?[CTET 2011]
(1) Theory of interrelation
(2) Theory of continuing
(3) Principle of integration
(4) Theory of interaction
6. Which of the following is a principle of child development?[CTET 2015]
(1) Development occurs because of the interaction between maturation and experience.
(2) Development can correctly estimate the speed of each child
(3) Experience is the only determinant of development
(4) Development is ensured through vigor and punishment.
7. The developmental perspective of teaching demands that teachers-[CTET 2014]
(1) Be a master of rigorous discipline as children often experiment
(2) Optimize instruction tips according to knowledge of developmental factors
(3) treat children with different developmental stages equally
(4) Provide a type of learning that results only in the development of the cognitive field
8. A teacher found that a student is experiencing difficulty in forming a class. He speculated that he would also experience difficulty in drawing a landscape. He made this prediction based on which of the following principles? [CTET 2014]
(1) Development is continuous
(2) Development process is different for different people
(3) Development is related to the tendency to be in a systematic order.
(4) The process of development is a mutational process
9. Which of the following is a critique of the theory of pluralism?[CTET 2013]
(1) Multiplicity is only ‘geniuses’, who are completely present in the intellect
(2) Multiple Intelligence helps learners to discover their own trends.
(3) It emphasizes practical intelligence more than necessary
(4) It cannot support empirical evidence at all.
10. Human development is based on certain principles. Which of the following is not a theory of human development? [CTET 2011]
(1) general to specific
11. The method of teaching in the lower classes is fundamentally based- [CTET 2011]
(1) On the principle of physical education programs
(2) on the principles of teaching methods
(3) On the psychological principles of growth and development
(4) Sociological principles of teaching
12. A teacher should try to understand the abilities of his students. Which of the following areas is related with this purpose- [CTET 2011]
(1) Sociology of Education
(2) Media Psychology
(3) social philosophy
(4) Education Psychology
13. The teacher teaches the child with knowledge of child psychology by taking information about the:- A) intelligence and interests of the children. B) teaches by knowing nature. C) Education by taking information about economic status and family status
(1) A only
(3) A and C
(2) B and C
(4) All these
14. Child Psychology is studied in-
(1) From child birth to childhood
(2) Before the child’s birth, from pregnancy to adolescence
(3) From child’s birth to adulthood
(4) From child birth to puberty
15. Which of the following statements is true regarding human development?
(1) from normal to normal
(2) from general to specific
(3) from specific to general
(4) from specific to specific
1.(3) 2.(2) 3.(2)
4. (3) 5. (2) 6. (1)
7. (2) 8. (3) 9. (1)
10. (4) 11. (3) 12. (4)
13. (4) 14. (2) 15. (2)
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