Influence of Heredity and Environment important MCQs

Influence of Heredity and environment on child development CTET exam

Influence of heredity and environment

Introduction: The concept of heredity and environment refers to the influence of genetics and surrounding physical and social factors on child development. It suggests that both nature (genetic factors) and nurture (environmental factors) play an important role in shaping a child’s growth, behavior and overall development.

Heredity or genetics, refers to the biological traits and characteristics that are inherited from parents to their offspring through genetic material. This includes traits such as eye color, height, hair type and certain genetic predispositions to certain health conditions. Genetic factors contribute to a child’s physical appearance, intelligence, temperament and even susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders.

On the other hand, environment encompasses the external influences that a child experiences, such as their family, peers, school, community, cultural norms, socioeconomic status and physical surroundings. These environmental factors have a profound effect on a child’s development, including their cognitive, emotional, social and physical development.

The interaction between heredity and environment is often described as a dynamic and complex process known as gene-environment interaction. This suggests that genetic predispositions may interact with environmental factors to shape a child’s development. For example, a child may have a genetic tendency to be tall, but their actual height will depend on factors such as nutrition and overall health, which are also influenced by the environment.

Furthermore, the concepts of heredity and environment are closely linked to the nature versus nurture debate. While heredity emphasizes the role of genetics, environment highlights the influence of external factors. However, it is widely accepted that the two factors are interrelated and mutually influential, rather than operating in isolation. The interplay between genetic and environmental factors is important in understanding child development and individual differences.

It is important to note that the relative contributions of heredity and environment may differ in different aspects of child development. Some traits or characteristics may be strongly influenced by genetics, while others may be more sensitive to environmental influences. Researchers continue to study the complex interactions between nature and nurture in order to gain a better understanding of child development and provide appropriate interventions and supports for children.

Influence of Heredity and environment: There is a strong influence of heredity and environment in the process of growth and development of child. The process of transmission of genetic traits from one generation to another is called heredity. The study of the methods and causes of transmission of genetic traits from generation to generation is called genetics.


1. Nature and nurture interactions:

The interaction between genetic factors and environmental influences is not a one-way street. It is a dynamic process where genes can influence how individuals respond to and interact with their environment, and the environment can, in turn, influence how genes are expressed. This interaction is often referred to as gene–environment correlation or gene–environment interaction.

2. Epigenetics:

Epigenetics refers to the study of changes in gene expression that are not caused by changes in the DNA sequence but by external factors such as the environment. Environmental factors can modify gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms, which can influence a wide range of traits and behaviours. This highlights the importance of environmental influences on gene expression and subsequent child development.

3. Sensitive period:

Certain developmental periods, often referred to as sensitive periods or critical periods, are particularly influenced by both heredity and environment. These are times when specific aspects of development are particularly susceptible to the effects of genetic and environmental factors. For example, a child’s language development is highly influenced by both genetic factors and the language exposure and interactions they have with their caregivers during early childhood.

4. Resilience:

While both heredity and environment can contribute to developmental challenges and vulnerabilities, they also play a role in resilience. Resilience refers to a person’s ability to adapt to adversity and thrive. Some children may have genetic predispositions that make them more resilient, while supportive and nurturing environments may also promote resilience and reduce the negative effects of genetic or environmental risk factors.

5. Gene-Environment Interaction in Developmental Disorders:

The interplay between heredity and environment is of particular relevance in understanding developmental disorders. Conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and intellectual disability are believed to result from complex interactions between genetic factors and environmental influences. Research aims to identify the specific genes and environmental factors that contribute to these disorders and to understand how they affect development.

6. Individual differences:

Each child is unique and the concept of heredity and environment helps explain individual differences observed in child development. Genetic factors may account for variation in physical appearance, temperament, cognitive abilities and personality traits. In addition, environmental factors, such as parenting style or educational opportunity, may contribute to individual differences in behavior, skills and achievement.

It is important to note that while heredity and environment are both influential, the relative contribution of each factor can vary depending on the specific aspect of development. Researchers continue to explore and unravel the complex interplay between genes and environment to better understand child development and inform strategies for promoting optimal development and well-being in children.

Concept of Heredity

Heredity is considered a stable social structure. Inheritance of a person includes all the physical features, physical characteristics, functions or abilities that he gets from his parents, other ancestors or species.

According to Montague and Schiele Fend, 3000 genes are found in each chromosome. Genes are the determinants of various abilities and qualities of a person.


Concept of Environment

Environment means to surround. Animals or human beings are surrounded by water, air, vegetation, mountains, plateaus, rivers, objects etc., all these together constitute the environment. It is also known as environment or nutrition.

Environment has a significant impact on the development of human life. The contribution of heredity to human development is as much as that of the environment.

Hence some psychological environment is also called social inheritance. Behavioral psychologists have given importance to environment more than inheritance.

Influence of Heredity and Environment on child development

  1. The entire behavior of the child is created by the interaction of heredity and environment. In any scheme of education, heredity and environment cannot be separated from each other. Just as there is a relationship between the soul and the body, so is the relationship between heredity and the environment. Therefore, the combination of heredity and environment is essential for the proper development of the child.

2. What is a child? What can he do? Why is it not developing enough? The answer to such questions lies in the effects of heredity and environment. By using their information, the teacher plays an important role in the all-round development of the child.

3. There is an effect of heredity and environment on all types of development, physical, mental, emotional, social. This is the reason why the education of the child is also affected by it. Therefore, this type of information about the child helps the teacher in solving his problems.

4. Only by understanding the child can he be given directions. Not all children studying in the same class have the same physical, mental health. Physical development is related to mental development and one who has good mental development, his education is also good.

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Important MCQs on influence of Heredity and environment

1. The qualities that are passed on to the children from the parents are called

(1) Lineage (2) Inheritance(3) atmosphere (4) none of these

2. Which of the following is the effect of heredity on a child?

A. Distinctive physical symptoms

B. specific intelligence

C. Distinctive Character

(1) A only (2) B only (3) A and B (4) All these

3. A student of your class is very superior in intelligence but very weak in body. You meet his father and see that his father is also superior in intelligence but very weak in body. According to you this could be the reason.

(1) Lack of nutritious food

(2) Disease of last many years

(3) Effect of heredity

(4) None of these

4. Heredity and environment are mutual.

A. dependent B. Supplements C. Associate

(1) A only (2) B only (3) C only (4) All these

5. A student of your class indulges in indiscipline everyday in the class. Which of the following measures would you adopt to solve this problem?

(1) By finding out his heredity and environment, will guide him in the right direction

(2) beat up the student daily until he ceases to be indiscipline in the class

(3) Ask the principal to remove his name from the school

(4) Will take him to a good psychiatrist for treatment

6. What is a child? What is his ability? Why is it not developing enough? etc. are the answerable elements of the questions

A. Inheritance B. Environment

(1) A only

(2) Both A and B

(3) B only

(4) none of these

7. You are a teacher in a Kendriya Vidyalaya in Delhi. Raghav, a student of your class, is a resident of Himachal Pradesh and another student, Sudip, is a native of Kerala. You see a lot of differences in the complexion, appearance, temperament, etc. of both of you. The main reason for this could be

(1) environmental effects

(2) Educational level of both in the school

(3) Your teaching method

(4) All of the above

8. ‘Each student is different in himself.’ What is the main reason for this fact?

.A. physical environment

B. Social environment

C. Inheritance

(1) A only

(3) A and C

(2) A and B

(4) All these

9. Today the incidents of child abuse are increasing, due to which complications are coming in the education system. What according to you is the main reason for this?

A. Contaminated inheritance

B. polluted social environment

C. Contaminated environment

(1) A only

(3) C only

(2) B only

(4) All these

10. What should a teacher do for the best possible development within the limits set by the heredity of the child?

1) He should improve the environment of the child

(2) He should advise the child to read more and more books

(3) He should be advised to participate in sports more and more

(4) He should be motivated to develop

11. In which of the following types of development, heredity and environment has an effect?

A. Social Development

B. emotional development

C. Mental development

D. Physical development

(1) D only

(2) A and B

(3) A, B and C

(4) All these

12. Physical symptoms of a child are affected

(1) from father’s DNA only

(2) from mother’s DNA only

(3) DNA of both mother and father

(4) Neither from mother’s nor father’s DNA

13. In the development of the child, the effect that his environment has on him is called

(1) parenting

(2) emotional development

(3) Social development

(4) Benefits of the environment

14. The effects of the environment are very important in both the stages of …… and …… of human beings.

(1) social, economic

(2) Education in society, school

(3) pre-natal, post-delivery

(4) Development in family school

15. The basic tendencies that the child gets from ……., their development takes place in ………….

(1) environment, inheritance

(2) inheritance, environment

(3) family, school

(4) society, family

16. Which of the following combination is most essential for the proper development of the child?

(1) his school and family

(2) its inheritance and environment

(3) his family and society

(4) its society and nation

17. …………. Plays an important role in personality development.

(1) heredity

(2) atmosphere

(3) Mixture of heredity and environment

(4) Number of examinations

18. All of the following environmental factors shape development except ……….

(1) nutritional quality

(2) Culture

(3) Quality of education

(4) Physical formation

19. Which of the following is mainly a heredity factor?

(1) eye color

(2) Participation in social activities

(3) Attitude towards peer group

(4) thinking pattern

20. Which of the following is true about the role of heredity and environment in the development of the child? [CTET 2013]

(1) Both heredity and environment contribute 50-50% in the development of a child.

(2) Relative contribution of isotopes and genes is not additive

(3) heredity and environment do not operate together

(4) Innate instinct is related to environment whereas heredity is necessary for actual development


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