Deforestation: it’s definition, causes, effects and solutions


Deforestation has brought the whole world to dangerous situations. Due to this many natural calamities keep happening every day. Mainly floods, land sliding, increase of global warming, melting of glaciers etc. We will know further about what are the causes of forest erosion and what is its world wide effect.

Definition of deforestation 

  • Deforestation is permanent cutting or removal of trees by human for make agriculture land for another purpose of that to situated buildings and industries on the forest land and using the timber for fuel, construction and manufacturing.
  • The UN’s food and agriculture organisation estimates the annual rate of deforestation to be around 1.3 km sq per decade. Forest cover 31% of land area on the earth. It helps people to grow and survive because forests or trees purifying air and water.
  • Forests help to stop drought and floods. It helps to bring rain. Millions of people does jobs through forest departments. Many animals depends on forests to survive. They achieve food and shelter from it.
  • Forests also plays a major role in climate change because trees observe carbon dioxide and contribute to ongoing changes in climate patterns but around the World forests are in danger. There is need to protect our forest to live healthy life. 

Causes of Deforestation

Climate change:

It is the first common cause of deforestation. Due to climate change increasing the temperature causes large scale of wildfires. Recently it was Massive wildfire at Amazon forests. That fire process continued by months. Climate change increase their frequency and power. Amazon forests called ‘The lungs of the earth’. But this enormous wildfire tragedy push it to the huge loss. 

Population growth:

Population growth is main cause of deforestation. Population growth defined increase in the number of individuals population. Global human population growth amount to around 83 million Annually or 1.1% per year. Many nations with rapid population growth have low standard of living and many nations with low population growth and high standards of living.

If population growth increase day by day then demand of products will be grow. Every individual needs home to live. That’s one of the most important cause of deforestation.


Urbanisation means that the population shift from rural to urban areas. Many peoples had rather go urban areas from rural areas.

It is predominantly the process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more people  begin living and working in Central areas. According to population growth  the need of people increases, which further lead to deforestation.

 Increasing population directly effects on forests as with the expansion of cities and there is need for more land for housing and settlements.


  • When people, companies and governments interact and integrate with each other worldwide it is called globalisation.
  • Since the 19th century due to advances in transportation and communication technology globalisation has  accelerated.
  • It is all round the world economic process to increase in global interaction for growth in international trade.
  • Economically globalisation involves goods, services, data, technology and economic resources of capital.
  • The enlargement of global markets liberalised the economic activities of the exchange of goods and funds.
  • Removal of cross-border trade barriers has lead the formation of global markets more realistic. The expansion of trade worldwide is major cause of deforestation. 

Human activities as agricultural expansion

Human activities get changes the world. It is the number one cause of deforestation. Expansion of cities reduce the forest. 80% of deforestation occurs due to agricultural land to produce food, fibres or biofuel such as soybean, rice, maize, cotton and sugarcane. It is around 40% lost of forests.

Construction of infrastructure

construction of roads to transport, rail, ports and airports and also construction of dams, industrial exploitation of mines contribute to massive deforestation. 

Extraction of timber

From past time old trees are cut down to  make timber for the furniture or paper industry. Also many other economically unattractive trees which have an important biological and ecological value are cut down.

Illegal logging occurs in all types of forests across all continents destroying nature and wildlife. Illegally harvested wood finds its way into major consumption markets which further fuels the cycle.

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Cultivations and livestock farming

The extraction of the most precious trees which are destined for Timber. Commercialization forests are set on Fire causing great impact on local animals and plants. Exhausting of trees and plants are massive loss for animals and livestock because their livelihood depends on it. Millions of wildlife depends on forests. 


The impact of mining on tropical forests is growing due to rising demand and high mineral price. Mining projects are often accompanied by major infrastructure of roads, Railway lines and power stations which are destroying forests and freshwater ecosystem.


Effects of deforestation:

Global warming

Major  effect of deforestation is on global warming and also it plays role to enhance the greenhouse effects. Deforestation causes carbon dioxide to stay in the atmosphere it produces a layer in the atmosphere that traps radiation from the sun and those radiations convert to keep which causes global warming. Global warming is a serious matter which puts effect on worldwide. To reduce global warming people should individually contribute.

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Effects on biodiversity

Many wonderful species of plants and animals have been lost and many other remain endangered. Forests provide more than a home for a diverse collection of living things which are important resource for many around the world.

Forests can be found from the tropics to high latitude areas. Forests are home to  80% of secular biodiversity containing plants, trees, animals and microbes. People depends on trees for firewood, timber and charcoal.

Effects on climate change

Plants absorb carbon dioxide CO2 from the atmosphere and release oxygen but deforested areas lost that ability and release more carbon which enhance air pollution and warming. 

Increased greenhouse gases

  • Human activities are changing Earth’s natural greenhouse effect. Deforestation, burning fossil fuels like coal and oil puts more carbon dioxide into our atmosphere.
  • The greenhouse effect works much the same way on earth.
  • Gases in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide trap heat just like the glass roof of a greenhouse.
  • These heat trapping gases are called greenhouse gases. Plants can help to balance the greenhouse effect on earth.
  • All plants from giant trees to small take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. 

Soil erosion and flooding

Main effects of deforestation include soil erosion and coastal flooding. Trees help the land to prevent water and top soil which provides the rich nutrient to sustain additional forest life. Without trees the soil erodes and washes away. The Barren land more perceptive to flooding specifically in coastal region. Flooding in coastal region is giant natural disaster due to lack of trees.

Loss of habitat

Most  dangerous effects of deforestation is the loss of habitat of wildlife. 70% of land animals and plant species live in forests. The indigenous communities who lived there and depend on the forest to sustain their way of life. The loss of forests has direct effect on their lifestyle. 

Effects on people 

Deforestation eliminate a great number of species of plants and animals which also commonly results in an increasing in disease for a number of years, deforestation, drought and subsequent fires led to a dramatic geography shift and density of fruit bats, a reservoir for nipah virus. Deforestation has affected all over human health and lifestyle.

It is the big disturbing activity with nature. Which is very harmful and directly or indirectly impacted on human life. These activities leading the world to the way of destruction.

Solutions or Strategies to stop deforestation:

Plant more trees

Every individual should plant one or two trees. If people take step forward together to grow plants then problem of deforestation never be faced.

Save trees

Old trees should be save. one big tree take 15 to 20 years to grow large those are natural properties which are destroyed by people to self means. If we protect nature in return it gives us a lot.

Programmes and policies

Worldwide all governments should make programmes and policies to protect forests. Cutting of trees should be banned, Not only on specific trees but all natural products are precious.

Learning subject

It should be a learning subject for all in the schools, colleges or institutions that how to grow and protect plants.

Forest department

Forest department always works for the protection of trees and species.

Monitoring of deforestation

There are multiple methods that are reliable for reducing deforestation. Which is typically assessed by quantifying the amount of area deforested measured at the present time. A global satellite view is available.


 In many parts of the world especially in East Asian countries reforestation is increasing the area of forested land. Asia as a whole gained 1 million hectares of forest between 2000 and 2005.

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