COP 27- In this article we have discussed about COP 27 summit 2022 (UNFCCC) which is held recently in Egypt. From compititive exams point of view It is very important topics to discuss and as well as important for all compititive exams eg. UPSC, SSC, IAS, BANKING, Railway, Defence, CUCET, Teaching etc.
What is COP-27?
The annual meeting of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is known as the Conference of the Parties (COP) under which every year through COP all countries discuss and decide on climate change strategy. Important decisions like Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement were adopted in these meetings.
About COP 27
- The 27th United Nations Climate Change Conference is being held in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt from 6th November to 18th November 2022 in which more than 90 Heads of State and an estimated 35,000 delegates from 190 countries are participating.
- This is the first climate summit held in Africa since 2016. India also hosted COP-8 in the year 2002 in New Delhi.
- The United Nations already has a specialized agency, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), to discuss all matters related to climate change.
- Currently, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has 198 member states (197 countries and 1 regional economic integration organization) and meets several times annually.
Special topics of discussion in COP 27 conference 2022: –
- Urgently reducing greenhouse gas emissions
- Building resilience and adapting to the inevitable effects of climate change
- Fulfilling commitments to finance climate action in developing countries.
What is the agenda of COP27?
This year, there are three main agenda in the COP27 agenda, which will be discussed in the conference.
i) carbon emissions
iii) Climate Finance
I. Reduction in Carbon Emissions:
How are countries cutting their emissions?
Mitigation is an important measure to combat climate change. This means using new technology and renewable energy sources, improving the energy efficiency of older equipment, changing management practices and consumer behaviour.
How countries will make adaptation efforts and help other countries. Climate change has knocked around the world. In such a situation, along with adaptation, discussion has started on the measures to be saved. In COP27, in addition to efforts to cut greenhouse gas emissions and slow global warming, better protection measures were discussed so that people could be saved.
Along with this, exchange of rescue measures and technology was also discussed between the countries, so that the world could be helped to move towards a better future.
III. Climate Finance:
How to provide financial help to deal with climate change? Climate finance is a big and important issue in COP27. Financial help to deal with climate change was also discussed in the conference. Developing countries have urged developed countries to ensure adequate and appropriate funding. In the conference, the promise of providing $ 100 billion per year by the developed countries remained in the center of discussion, which has not yet been fulfilled.
What were the issues raised by India in COP27?
From COP27, India’s Union Environment Minister Bhupendra Yadav said that India has sought ‘action’ from developed countries in terms of climate finance, technology transfer and capacity building to help developing countries fight climate change. They said,
“We look forward to action at COP27 on climate finance, technology exchange and capacity building. There have been enough promises by countries but not enough action.”
He said India’s overall approach at COP27 would be to emphasize on strong, ambitious and decisive climate actions, call for climate justice and focus on sustainable lifestyles through the LiFE movement launched by PM Modi.
Full form of UNFCCC
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
- It is a multilateral treaty governing action to combat climate change through adaptation and mitigation efforts to control emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that cause global warming.
- The UNFCCC came into force on 21 March 1994 and has been ratified by 197 countries.
- India ratified the UNFCCC in 1993.
- It is considered the parent treaty of both the Kyoto Protocol (1997) and the Paris Agreement (2015).
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