100th Amendment of Indian Constitution free PDF

100th Amendment of the Indian Constitution

100th Amendment :- The Constitution of India is the supreme law of the land, which sets out the fundamental principles, powers and functions of the government, and the rights and duties of its citizens. Since its adoption in 1950, the Constitution has been amended several times to reflect changing social, economic and political realities. The 100th Amendment of the Indian Constitution is one such amendment that was introduced to strengthen the Panchayati Raj system in the country.

Three tier system

I. The Panchayati Raj system is a three-tier system of local self-government at the village, block and district levels, which was introduced in India in 1992 through the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution.

II. The system aims to decentralize power and resources to the grassroots level, promote participatory democracy, and empower rural communities.

III. Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) are responsible for a number of functions such as planning and implementation of rural development programmes, provision of basic services such as water supply, sanitation and health and maintenance of community assets such as roads, schools and markets.

The 100th Amendment to the Indian Constitution was passed in 2015 with the aim of strengthening Panchayati Raj institutions and making them more effective in providing services to the rural population. The amendment made three important changes to the constitution:

100th amendment

Insertion of a new article:

The 100th Amendment introduced a new article, Article 243G, which provides for the establishment of a State Finance Commission (SFC) every five years to recommend the distribution of resources between the state government and the PRIs . The SFC is tasked with reviewing the financial position of the PRIs, recommending the distribution of taxes, fees and grants between the state government and the PRIs, and suggesting measures to improve the financial autonomy of the PRIs.

Changes in Article 243T:

The 100th amendment amends Article 243T of the Constitution, which deals with reservation for women in Panchayati Raj Institutions. The amendment extended the reservation for women in PRIs for another 15 years, making it mandatory for every state to reserve one-third of the seats for women at all levels of PRIs. The amendment is expected to promote gender equality and increase participation of women in decision making at the grassroots level.

Insertion of a new schedule:

The 100th amendment also added a new schedule, the Eleventh Schedule, which lists 29 functions that Panchayati Raj Institutions are empowered to perform. The functions include agriculture, health, education, social welfare and rural development. The Eleventh Schedule aims to provide clarity on the functions and responsibilities of PRIs and enable them to plan and implement rural development programs more effectively.

Significance of 100th amendment of the Indian Constitution

Strengthening the panchayati Raj system

The 100th amendment of the Indian Constitution is a significant step towards strengthening the Panchayati Raj system and empowering rural communities. The amendment provides for the establishment of a State Finance Commission to ensure that Panchayati Raj Institutions have adequate financial resources to perform their functions, expand reservation for women in Panchayati Raj Institutions and list those functions To do which the Panchayati Raj Institutions have the right. The amendment is expected to enhance the effectiveness of the Panchayati Raj system in providing services to the rural population and promoting inclusive development.

Social reform

The 100th amendment to the Indian Constitution is not only a legal amendment, but a social reform that aims to decentralize power and promote democracy at the ground level. The amendment of a historic milestone has been welcomed in the development of the Panchayati Raj system and is expected to have far -reaching implications for rural development in India.

The State Finance Commission (SFC)

One of the most important changes introduced by the 100th amendment is the establishment of the State Finance Commission (SFC). The SFC is a constitutional body responsible for reviewing the financial position of the PRIs and recommending the distribution of resources between the state government and the PRIs. This is an important step towards ensuring that Panchayati Raj Institutions have adequate financial resources to perform their functions and promote rural development.

Reservation for women in Panchayati Raj Institutions

Another important change introduced by the 100th amendment is the extension of reservation for women in Panchayati Raj Institutions. The amendment made it mandatory for each state to reserve one-third of the seats for women in all levels of Panchayati Raj Institutions. The move is expected to empower women and increase their participation in decision-making at the grassroots level. This is also expected to have a positive impact on the social and economic status of women in rural India.

The Eleventh Schedule

The Eleventh Schedule, which was inserted by the 100th Amendment, is also an important addition to the Constitution. The schedule lists 29 functions that Panchayati Raj Institutions are empowered to perform. These include everything from agriculture and rural development to health and education. It provides clarity on the functions and responsibilities of Panchayati Raj Institutions and enables them to plan and implement rural development programs more effectively.

The 100th amendment has been widely hailed by civil society organisations, academics and policy makers as a major step towards strengthening the Panchayati Raj system in India. The amendment is expected to improve delivery of public services in rural areas, promote inclusive growth and empower local communities to take charge of their own development.

Challenges

However, there are some challenges associated with the implementation of the 100th Amendment. One of the main challenges is the lack of capacity and resources at the grassroots level to effectively implement the functions and responsibilities of PRIs. Another challenge is the resistance of locally established power structures to the devolution of power to Panchayati Raj institutions.

Despite these challenges, the 100th Amendment to the Indian Constitution is a landmark reform that has the potential to transform the Panchayati Raj system in India. It provides a legal framework for grassroots decentralisation, empowerment and participatory democracy and is expected to have a significant impact on rural development in the years to come.

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